Many elementary school children have heard of Betsy Ross, one of the few female figures of the Revolutionary War period of early American history that receives attention in classrooms. She is commonly known as the seamstress that created the first American flag. However, historical evidence actually does not exist to support this well-known “fact.”
The claim that Betsy Ross created the first American flag didn’t actually come up until the 1870s, about 100 years after her supposed accomplishment and when the nation was on the brink of celebrating its centennial of independence.
The story goes that George Washington himself, along with signers of the Declaration of Independence Robert Morris and George Ross (a relative of Betsy’s), went to Betsy Ross’s home in Philadelphia in June 1776 to discuss the need for a flag for the soon-to-be-declared independent United States. Ross looked at their design and suggested a change from a 6-pointed star to a 5-pointed star because it would be easier to sew and accepted the job of making the first flag. End of story? Not so much.
However, there are no written records of this meeting, of Betsy’s accepting the job, or of her completing the first American flag. Only oral tradition exists. The first time the public heard tale of Betsy Ross was when her grandson William Canby made a presentation in 1870 to the Historical Society of Pennsylvania claiming that his grandmother “made with her hands the first flag” of the United States. His source was another relative, making it simply family oral tradition without proof.
Myths are often rooted in some truth and Betsy Ross was indeed an upholsterer (not a seamstress, but a related trade) and she did make flags for the burgeoning United States during the Revolutionary War, specifically for the Pennsylvania navy. But her role in the creation of the first American flag is contested.
Those who argue that the story isn’t true point to the lack of archival evidence–no letters, meeting minutes, resolutions, receipts, etc.–and to the fact that the first time it was brought up was 100 years after it supposedly happened. In the 1870s the public was quick to believe the story as patriotism geared up in honor of the nation’s centennial celebration in 1876 and looked for heroes and heroines of the Revolution to honor and revere. Also, there were many upholsterers in Philadelphia that could have made the flag.
However, those that argue its truth have several interesting points as well, as outlined by the Betsy Ross House house museum’s website. Betsy’s relation to George Ross through her marriage could mean that she would have been selected to work on the flag over the many other upholsterers in Philadelphia. Betsy and her husband John had made bed hangings for George Washington in 1774, making him familiar with her work. Also, Betsy made other flags for the United States and had many government contracts over the years, well into the 19th century.
At the end of the day, one must decide for themselves. It remains a historical question that simply cannot be answered. It has not been proven true nor false.
The attention placed on Betsy Ross has meant that much about her life is known and preserved, which regardless of her role in the creation of the first flag, is important historical information about women’s lives during the Revolution and the early years of the new nation. She certainly led an interesting life. A few quick facts about Betsy Ross:
- She was born into a Quaker family, but was expelled from the Quaker church (and cut off from her family) when she married John Ross, a son of a revered of the Church of England. The two fell in love when they were both apprenticed to the same upholsterer and they eloped.
- They were married just a few short years before John died, possibly in a gunpowder explosion in his role as a member of the local militia.
- Her second husband, Jacob Ashburn, also died just a few years after their marriage–he died while imprisoned for treason in a British jail.
- She married for a third time – John Claypoole – and had several children, but all the while she continued the upholstery business.
- Her business efforts supported the Continental Army for which she made and mended uniforms, tents, blankets, etc. Acts that were technically treason against Britain.
Read more about her:
From the Betsy Ross House: http://historicphiladelphia.org/betsy-ross-house/woman/
From Laurel Thatcher Ulrich: http://www.common-place-archives.org/vol-08/no-01/ulrich/
Ulrich’s Review of Marla Miller’s biography of Betsy Ross (which I also recommend): https://www.nytimes.com/2010/05/09/books/review/Ulrich-t.html
Marla Miller’s book Betsy Ross and the Making of America: https://www.amazon.com/Betsy-Making-America-Marla-Miller/dp/B00BFQCIDA
What do you think? Truth or myth?
Apparently Betsy was of Welsh descent – I’m going to have to dig my info on her back out now!
Yes, that would be interesting. I didn’t get into her genealogy but I did read that her great grandfather was a Quaker who emigrated from England in 1680.
This post was great, I had no idea about Betsy Ross’ personal life and her being excommunicated from the Quaker Church!
Yes, in all the interest over whether or not she made the first American flag the rest of her very interesting life often gets overlooked. Thanks for your comment! I’m glad you enjoyed the post!
1. The latest research on the life and legend of Betsy Ross has been uploaded to the annotated Wikipedia article on Betsy Ross, as of 2021. (See: https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Betsy_Ross). For example, Betsy Ross was born in Gloucester City, New Jersey, and moved with her family to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, when she was a toddler.
2. Incidentally, the Flag Manufacturers Association of America (FMAA) issued the following Tweet on February 4, 2021:
FMAA@FMAA_USA – Feb 4
#FlagFact: The designer of the American flag was Francis Hopkinson, a signer of the Declaration of Independence as a delegate from New Jersey.
3. The latest research on Francis Hopkinson’s role in designing the American flag has been uploaded to the annotated Wikipedia article on Francis Hopkinson, as of 2021. (See: https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_Hopkinson).
Submitted by Earl P. Williams, Jr., U.S. flag historian (paleovexillologist)