Reflections on Women’s History Month

MyraSadker

March was Women’s History Month and I was reminded of how much I love women’s history. From seeing others posting about the women of the past who inspired them, honoring trailblazers, pioneers, and rebels, to doing my own posts, researching, writing about, and revisiting past work I’ve done on women in history, I am feeling so inspired and motivated to continue to research and write about these stories that interest me and are so important to tell.

Like Black History Month, Women’s History Month deserves to go on all year, everyday, for women’s history, black history, and other minority history to be more fully incorporated into the story of American history because these stories are American history. They are all part of what brought us to today.

I still have so many ideas, as well as several partial draft posts already queuing up, about women’s history. Therefore, I will be continuing to celebrate Women’s History Month well into April and likely beyond.

In case you missed any of my Women’s History Month content, I’ve rounded it all up below. Check it out and let me know what you think! 

Betsy Ross & The Myth of the First American Flag

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Women & Family Ties in Immigration: Anna, Julian & Paranka Debaylo

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Marie Curie: Guest Post by a Budding Historian

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La Malinche: Traitor, Victim & Survivor, or Mother of Mestizos?

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Also, I’ve highlighted a few other interesting women, such as Violeta Chamorro, the first female head of state in the Americas, Myra Pollack Sadker, a researcher on gender inequity in schools, & Selena, the Queen of Tejano music, in shorter posts on my social media profiles. Check me out on Instagram, Twitter, & Facebook for more content and little bites of history on the daily. I’ve also started playing #TuesdayTrivia with women’s history each week in my Instagram Stories.

Betsy Ross & the Myth of the First American Flag

Many elementary school children have heard of Betsy Ross, one of the few female figures of the Revolutionary War period of early American history that receives attention in classrooms. She is commonly known as the seamstress that created the first American flag. However, historical evidence actually does not exist to support this well-known “fact.”

The claim that Betsy Ross created the first American flag didn’t actually come up until the 1870s, about 100 years after her supposed accomplishment and when the nation was on the brink of celebrating its centennial of independence.

The story goes that George Washington himself, along with signers of the Declaration of Independence Robert Morris and George Ross (a relative of Betsy’s), went to Betsy Ross’s home in Philadelphia in June 1776 to discuss the need for a flag for the soon-to-be-declared independent United States. Ross looked at their design and suggested a change from a 6-pointed star to a 5-pointed star because it would be easier to sew and accepted the job of making the first flag. End of story? Not so much. 

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However, there are no written records of this meeting, of Betsy’s accepting the job, or of her completing the first American flag. Only oral tradition exists. The first time the public heard tale of Betsy Ross was when her grandson William Canby made a presentation in 1870 to the Historical Society of Pennsylvania claiming that his grandmother “made with her hands the first flag” of the United States. His source was another relative, making it simply family oral tradition without proof. 

Myths are often rooted in some truth and Betsy Ross was indeed an upholsterer (not a seamstress, but a related trade) and she did make flags for the burgeoning United States during the Revolutionary War, specifically for the Pennsylvania navy. But her role in the creation of the first American flag is contested.

Those who argue that the story isn’t true point to the lack of archival evidence–no letters, meeting minutes, resolutions, receipts, etc.–and to the fact that the first time it was brought up was 100 years after it supposedly happened. In the 1870s the public was quick to believe the story as patriotism geared up in honor of the nation’s centennial celebration in 1876 and looked for heroes and heroines of the Revolution to honor and revere. Also, there were many upholsterers in Philadelphia that could have made the flag.

However, those that argue its truth have several interesting points as well, as outlined by the Betsy Ross House house museum’s website. Betsy’s relation to George Ross through her marriage could mean that she would have been selected to work on the flag over the many other upholsterers in Philadelphia. Betsy and her husband John had made bed hangings for George Washington in 1774, making him familiar with her work. Also, Betsy made other flags for the United States and had many government contracts over the years, well into the 19th century.

At the end of the day, one must decide for themselves. It remains a historical question that simply cannot be answered. It has not been proven true nor false. 

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The attention placed on Betsy Ross has meant that much about her life is known and preserved, which regardless of her role in the creation of the first flag, is important historical information about women’s lives during the Revolution and the early years of the new nation. She certainly led an interesting life. A few quick facts about Betsy Ross:

  1. She was born into a Quaker family, but was expelled from the Quaker church (and cut off from her family) when she married John Ross, a son of a revered of the Church of England. The two fell in love when they were both apprenticed to the same upholsterer and they eloped.
  2. They were married just a few short years before John died, possibly in a gunpowder explosion in his role as a member of the local militia.
  3. Her second husband, Jacob Ashburn, also died just a few years after their marriage–he died while imprisoned for treason in a British jail.
  4. She married for a third time – John Claypoole – and had several children, but all the while she continued the upholstery business.
  5. Her business efforts supported the Continental Army for which she made and mended uniforms, tents, blankets, etc. Acts that were technically treason against Britain.

Read more about her:

From the Betsy Ross House: http://historicphiladelphia.org/betsy-ross-house/woman/ 

From Laurel Thatcher Ulrich: http://www.common-place-archives.org/vol-08/no-01/ulrich/

Ulrich’s Review of Marla Miller’s biography of Betsy Ross (which I also recommend): https://www.nytimes.com/2010/05/09/books/review/Ulrich-t.html

Marla Miller’s book Betsy Ross and the Making of America: https://www.amazon.com/Betsy-Making-America-Marla-Miller/dp/B00BFQCIDA

What do you think? Truth or myth?  

#WomensHistoryMonth: Marie Curie — Guest Post by a Budding Historian

In Women’s History Month, I am writing about women from the past including inspiring women, controversial women, unheard of women, and everyday women. I am also taking the opportunity to support and lift up today and tomorrow’s women.

The following post was written by my 10-year-old niece, Tori, for her 4th grade class project about biographies. When she found out she was doing a biography project at school, she called me for ideas about who she should write about. She wanted to choose someone from history rather than a current figure, and she wanted to write about a woman. Granted, she knows I’m a historian and I’ve been pushing children’s books about women’s history on her since she before she could talk, so she probably said what she thought I wanted to hear.

But at any rate, I was thrilled. I went through several women and girls I thought she would find interesting and she settled on Marie Curie, the Nobel-prize winning scientist. As they worked on the project at school, she called me with updates. It was so much fun to hear how excited she was about what she was learning. Below, rendered just as she wrote it, is her paper. She got a 100 on it. I’m a very proud aunt. Hope you enjoy learning a bit more about the inspiring Marie Curie, the first woman to win a Nobel Prize and the first person to win two. 3242_001

Full text below for ease of reading. 

Maria Salomea Sklodowska also known as Marie Curie was born on November 7, 1867 in Warsaw, Poland. Her parents Wtadystaw Sktodowski and Bronislaw Sklodowski were both teachers. She had four siblings three sisters and one brother. Marie was the top student high school which people called secondary school. She earned her Master’s Degree in physics in 1893. The following year she got another degree in mathematics. When Marie was ten years old her mother died of Tuberculosis, a disease that makes you cough up blood. To make matters worse her sister died in 1876.

Marie Curie accomplished many things! ln 1895, she married Pierre Curie. A couple of years later in 1897, she gave birth to her first of two children, Irene! Five years passed and in 1902 she starts to work with radium, a chemical element. A year later in 1903, she and her husband win a Nobel Prize with radioactivity and physics! Three years later, in 1906, a sad thing happened to Pierre Curie, he was in a traffic collision. He died on April 19, 1906. He was buried in Pantheon, Paris, France. Marie took his place in teaching. Later in 1911, she won another Nobel Prize, but this time for chemistry. ln 1922, she became a member of the French Academy. Ten years later, in 1932, Marie joins the fight for cancer. Marie Curie was a pioneer in the study of radiation!

Marie Curie discovered many things! Sadly, Marie Curie died on July 4, 1934 from aplastic anemia, a disease that mostly has to do with large amounts of radiation. She died of 66 years of age. She was buried in Pantheon, Paris, France. She is remembered for her discoveries that help us out every day. She discovered Radium and Polonium. Her discoveries helped change the world!